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Manual testing Interview Questions

It is has been a regular statement that training and experience are the two different aspects. The reasons behind development of such statement are the lack of availability of questionnaire on Manual testing interview question. The below mentioned Manual Testing interview questionnaire is the work of Manual Testing specialists, Manual Testing experts, and Manual Testing trainers of APTRON who have contributed their best of knowledge and experience in preparing Manual Testing interview questions and answers for freshers, and experience candidates. Once a student is able to read the manual testing interview questions, he or she will definitely mark the success proving the above said statement wrong.

manual testing interview questions

About Manual testing

Manual testing is the development of manually testing software for imperfections. It needs a tester to play the role of an end user whereby they use mainly of the application's features to make sure correct performance. To guarantee wholeness of testing, the tester often pursues a written test plan that leads them through a set of significant test cases. Manual Testing is a procedure of finding out the defects or bugs in a software program. In this method, the tester plays a significant role of end user and verifies that all the characteristics of the application are working properly. The tester manually executes test cases without using any mechanization tools.

Manual Testing Interview Questions And Answers

1. What is Software Testing?

Software testing is the process of evaluating a system to check if it satisfies its business requirements. It measures the overall quality of the system in terms of attributes like correctness, completeness, usability, performance etc. Basically, it is used for ensuring the quality of software to the stakeholders of the application.

2. Why is testing required?

We need software testing for following reasons-

  1. Testing provides an assurance to the stakeholders that product works as intended.
  2. Avoidable defects leaked to the end user/customer without proper testing adds bad reputation to the development company.
  3. Defects detected earlier phase of SDLC results into lesser cost and resource utilization of correction.
  4. Saves development time by detecting issues in earlier phase of development.
  5. Testing team adds another dimension to the software development by providing a different view point to the product development process.

3. When should we stop testing?

Testing (both manual and automated) can be stopped when one or more of the following conditions are met-

  1. After test case execution - Testing phase can be stopped when one complete cycle of test cases is executed after the last known bug fix with agreed upon value of pass-percentage.
  2. Once the testing deadline is met - Testing can be stopped after deadlines get met with no high priority issues left in system.
  3. Based on Mean Time Between failure (MTBF)- MTBF is the time interval between two inherent failures. Based on stakeholders decisions, if the MTBF is quite large one can stop the testing phase.
  4. Based on code coverage value - Testing phase can be stopped when the automated code coverage reaches a specific threshold value with sufficient pass-percentage and no critical bug.

4. What is Quality Assurance?

Quality assurance is a process driven approach which checks if the process of developing the product is correct and conforming to all the standards. It is considered as a preventive measure as it identifies the weakness in the process to build a software. It involves activities like document review, test cases review, walk-throughs, inspection etc.

5. What is Quality Control?

Quality control is product driven approach which checks that the developed product conforms to all the specified requirements. It is considered as a corrective measure as it tests the built product to find the defects. It involves different types of testing like functional testing, performance testing, usability testing etc.

6. What is the difference between Verification and Validation?

# Verification

Validation

1.

Verification is the process of evaluating the artifacts as well as the process of software development in order to ensure that the product being developed will comply to the standards.

Validation is the process of validating that the developed software product conforms to the specified business requirements.

2.

It is static process of analyzing the documents and not the actual end product.

It involves dynamic testing of software product by running it.

3.

Verification is a process oriented approach.

Validation is a product oriented approach.

4.

Answers the question - "Are we building the product right?"

Answers the question - "Are we building the right product?"

5.

Errors found during verification require lesser cost/resources to get fixed as compared to be found during validation phase.

Errors found during validation require more cost/resources. Later the error is discovered higher is the cost to fix it.

7. What is SDLC?

SDLC stands for Software Development Life Cycle. It refers to all the activities performed during software development - requirement gathering, requirement analysis, designing, coding or implementation, testing, deployment and maintenance.

8. Explain STLC - Software Testing life cycle.

Software testing life cycle refers to all the activities performed during testing of a software product. The phases include-

  • Requirement analyses and validation - In this phase the requirements documents are analysed and validated and scope of testing is defined.
  • Test planning - In this phase test plan strategy is defined, estimation of test effort is defined along with automation strategy and tool selection is done.
  • Test Design and analysis - In this phase test cases are designed, test data is prepared and automation scripts are implemented.
  • Test environment setup - A test environment closely simulating the real world environment is prepared.
  • Test execution - The test cases are prepared, bugs are reported and retested once resolved.
  • Test closure and reporting - A test closure report is prepared having the final test results summary, learning and test metrics.

9. What are the different types of testing?

Testing can broadly be defined into two types-

  • Functional testing - Functional testing involves validating the functional specifications of the system.
  • Non Functional testing - Non functional testing is a type of testing that involves testing of non-functional requirements of the system such as performance, scalability, security, endurance, portability etc.

Going by the way the testing is done, it can be categorized as-

  • Black box testing - In black box testing, the tester need not have any knowledge of the internal architecture or implementation of the system. The tester interact with the system through the interface providing input and validating the received output.
  • White box testing - In white box testing, the tester analyses the internal architecture of the system as well as the quality of source code on different parameters like code optimization, code coverage, reusability etc.
  • Gray box testing - In gray box testing, the tester has partial access to the internal architecture of the system e.g. the tester may have access to the design documents or database structure. This information helps tester to test the application better.

10. What is a test bed?

A test bed is a test environment used for testing an application. A test bed configuration can consist of the hardware and software requirement of the application under test including - operating system, hardware configurations, software configurations, tomcat, database etc.

11. What is static testing? When does it start and what does it cover?

Static testing is a white-box testing technique that directs developers to verify their code with the help of a checklist to find errors in it. Developers can start the static testing without actually finalizing the application or program. Static testing is more cost-effective than dynamic testing as it conceals more areas than dynamic testing in a shorter time.

12. Define Black-box testing.

It is a standard software testing approach that requires testers to assess the functionality of the software as per the business requirements. The software is treated as a black box and validated as per the end user’s point of view.

13. What is a test plan and what does it include?

A test plan stores all possible testing activities to ensure a quality product. It gathers data from the product description, requirement, and use case documents.

The test plan document includes the following:

  • Testing objectives
  • Test scope
  • Testing the frame
  • Environment
  • Reason for testing
  • Criteria for entrance and exit
  • Deliverables
  • Risk factors

14. What is meant by test coverage?

Test coverage is a quality metric to represent the amount (in percentage) of testing completed for a product. It is relevant for both functional and non-functional testing activities. This metric is used to add missing test cases.

15. What are unit testing and integration testing?

Unit testing has many names such as module testing or component testing.

Many times, it is the developers who test individual units or modules to check if they are working correctly.

Whereas, integration testing validates how well two or more units of software interact with each other.

There are three ways to validate integration:

  • Big Bang approach
  • Top-down approach
  • Bottom-up approach

16. Mention the different types of software testing.

Various testing types used by manual testers are as follows:

  • Unit testing
  • Integration testing
  • Regression testing
  • Shakeout testing
  • Smoke testing
  • Functional testing
  • Performance testing
    • Load testing
    • Stress testing
    • Endurance testing
  • White-box and Black-box testing
  • Alpha and Beta testing
  • System testing

17. What is the difference between a test driver and a test stub?

The test driver is a section of code that calls a software component under test. It is useful in testing that follows the bottom-up approach.

The test stub is a dummy program that integrates with an application to complete its functionality. It is relevant for testing that uses the top-down approach.

For example:

  1. Let’s assume a scenario where we have to test the interface between Modules A and B. We have developed only Module A. Here, we can test Module A if we have the real Module B or a dummy module for it. In this case, we call Module B as the test stub.
  2. Now, Module B can’t send or receive data directly from Module A. In such a scenario, we’ve to move data from one module to another using some external features called test driver.

18. What is agile testing and why is it important?

Agile testing is a software testing process that evaluates software from the customers’ point of view. It is favorable as it does not require the development team to complete coding for starting QA. Instead, both coding and testing go hand in hand. However, it may require continuous customer interaction.

19. What do you know about data flow testing?

It is one of the white-box testing techniques.

Data flow testing emphasizes for designing test cases that cover control flow paths around variable definitions and their uses in the modules. It expects test cases to have the following attributes:

  • The input to the module
  • The control flow path for testing
  • A pair of an appropriate variable definition and its use
  • The expected outcome of the test case

20. What is the purpose of the end-to-end testing?

End-to-end testing is a testing strategy to execute tests that cover every possible flow of an application from its start to finish. The objective of performing end-to-end tests is to discover software dependencies and to assert that the correct input is getting passed between various software modules and sub-systems.

21. When Should You Start The Testing Process?

Testing should begin from the inception of the project. Once you get the requirements baselined, System testing plan and test case preparation should start. It also helps in exploring any gaps in the functional requirements.

22. When Should You Stop The Testing Process?

The testing activity ends after the team completes the following milestones.

  1. Test case execution: The successful completion of a full test cycle after the final bug fix marks the end of the testing phase.
  2. Testing deadline: The end date of the validation stage also declares the closure of the validation if no critical or high priority defects remain in the system.
  3. MTBF rate: It is the mean time between failures (MTBF), which reflects the reliability of the components. If it is on the higher side, then PO and EM can decide to stop testing.
  4. CC ratio: It is the amount of code covered via automated tests. If the team achieves the desired level of code coverage (CC) ratio, then they can choose to end the validation.

23. Explain The Positive Testing Approach?

The purpose of this testing is to ensure whether the system is confirming to the requirements or not.

24. Explain The Negative Testing Approach?

The purpose of this testing is to identify what the system should not do. It helps uncover potential flaws in the software.

25. What Is Test Strategy, And What Does It Cover?

Test strategy is an approach to carry out the testing activity.

It covers the following:

  • Test team Roles and Responsibilities
  • Testing scope
  • Test tools
  • Test environment
  • Testing schedule
  • Associated risks

26. What Is The Difference Between High Level And Low-Level Test Cases?

  • High-level test cases cover the core functionality of a product like standard business flows.
  • Low-level test cases are those related to user interface (UI) in the application.

27. What Is Meant By Test Harness?

A test harness is a set of scripts and demo data that tests an application under variable conditions and observes its behavior and outputs.

It emphasizes on running the test cases randomly rather than in a sequence.

28. What Is Meant By Big Bang Approach?

It means to merge all the modules after testing of individual modules and verify the functionality.

It involves the use of dummy modules such as Stubs and Drivers. They make up for missing components to simulate data exchange.

29. What Is Meant By The Top-Down Approach?

Testing goes from top to bottom. It first validates the High-level modules and then goes for low-level modules.

Finally, it tests the integrated modules to ensure the system is working as expected.

30. What Is Meant By The Bottom-Up Approach?

It is a reverse of the Top-Down method. In this, testing occurs from bottom to up.

It first tests the lowest level modules and then goes for high-level modules. Finally, it verifies the integrated modules to ensure the system is working as expected.

31. What Is Meant By Smoke Testing?

Smoke testing confirms the basic functionality works for a product. It requires you to identify the most basic test cases for execution.

32. What Is Meant By Sanity Testing?

Sanity testing ensures that the product runs without any logical errors. For example, if we are testing a calculator app; we may multiply a number by three and check whether the sum of the digits of the answer is divisible by 3.

33. What Is Exploratory Testing?

Exploratory testing is a process that lets a tester concentrate more on execution and less at planning.

  • It requires formulating a test charter, a short declaration of the scope, a set of objectives, and possible approaches to be used.
  • The test design and test execution activities may run in parallel without formally documenting the test conditions, test cases, or test scripts.
  • Testers can use boundary value analysis to concentrate the testing effort on error-prone areas by accurately pinpointing the boundaries.
  • Notes should be recorded for the Exploratory Testing sessions as it would help to create a final report of its execution.

34. What Is Ramp Testing?

It is a testing method that proposes to raise an input signal until the system breaks down.

35. What Is Recovery Testing?

It ensures that the program must recover from any expected or unexpected events without loss of data or functionality.

Events could be like a shortage of disk space, unexpected loss of communication, or power out conditions.

36. What Is Reliability Testing?

Reliability testing is a testing strategy to measure the consistency of a Software in executing a specific operation without throwing any error for a certain period in the given environment.

Example:

The probability that a Server class application hosted on the cloud is up and running for six long months without crashing is 99.99%. We refer to this type of testing as reliability.

37. What Is Globalization Testing?

Globalization testing concentrates on detecting the potential problems in the product design that could spoil globalization. It certifies that the code can handle the desired international support without breaking any functionality. And also, it ensures that there would be no data loss and display problems.

38. What Do You Know About API Testing?

API is an acronym for Application Programming Interface. It gives users access to public classes, functions, and member variables for calling them from external applications. It lays down a model for components to being interaction with each other.

API testing comprises of three parts:

  1. Data-tier (database)
  2. Business logic tier (PHP/J2EE)
  3. Presentation tier (UI)

API testing is also a white-box testing method. It makes use of the code and a programming tool to call the API. It ignores the UI layer of the application and validates the path between the client and the API. The client software forwards a call to the API to get the specified return value. API testing examines whether the system is responding with the correct status or not.

API testing got carried out by the testers to confirm the system from end to end. They don’t have permission to get to the source code but can use the API calls. This testing covers authorization, usability, exploratory, automated, and document validation.

39. What Is Meant By Alpha Testing?

Alpha testing is an in-house and developer-driven testing approach. Sometimes the client also does it, and in some cases, it may get outsourced.

40. What Is Meant By Beta Testing?

Beta testing happens at the end-users premises. It is to ensure customer feedback before final delivery.

41. What Is Meant By Gamma Testing?

Gamma testing happens after the software is available for release with itemized requirements.

It skips the in-house testing activities and executes it at the client end.

42. Explain The Difference Between Pilot And Beta Testing?

Read the following points to know the difference between Pilot and Beta testing.

  1. We do the beta test when the product is about to release to the customer, whereas pilot testing takes place in the earlier phase of the development cycle.
  2. In the beta test, the testing application is given to a few users to make sure that it meets the customer requirements and does not contain any showstopper bug. Whereas, in the pilot test, few members of the testing team visit the customer site to set up the product. They give their feedback also to improve the quality of the end product.

43. What Does It Mean By Gorilla Testing?

Gorilla Testing is a testing strategy where testers collaborate with developers as a joint force for validating a target module thoroughly from all ends.

44. How Do You Test A Product If The Requirements Are Yet To Freeze?

If the requirement spec is not available for a product, then a test plan can be created based on the assumptions made about the product. But we should get all assumptions well documented in the test plan.

45. How Will You Tell If Enough Test Cases Have Been Created To Test A Product?

First of all, we’ll check if every requirement has at least one test case covered. If yes, then we can say that there are enough test cases to test the product.

46. If A Product Is In Production And One Of Its Modules Gets Updated, Then Is It Necessary To Retest?

It is advisable to perform regression testing and run tests for all of the other modules as well. Finally, the QA should carry out System testing.

47. How Do We Know The Code Has Met Specifications?

A traceability matrix is an intuitive tool that ensures the requirements mapped to the test cases. When the execution of all test cases finishes with a success, it indicates that the code has met the requirements.

48. What Does Requirement Traceability Matrix Include?

Requirement Traceability Matrix (RTM) is a document that records the mapping between the high-level requirements and the test cases in the form of a table.

That’s how it ensures that the Test Plan covers all the requirements and links to their latest version.

Career scopes and salary scale

A Manual Testing programmer is expected to enjoy minimum salary of 40, 000 dollars per annum. However, the salaries are completely dependent upon the location, business, and the company’s requirements. Manual Testing developers, Manual Testing programmers, and Manual Testing engineers are expected to take the full advantage of technological expansion. Besides, Manual Testing has occupied the topmost place in the arena of programming languages as it provides a range of features to the developers.

Conclusion

The article ‘Manual testing interview questions’ has answered every advanced Manual testing interview questions. In addition, the thoughtful structured of the Manual Testing interview questions for experienced is being designed by our experts, which might have helped candidates in getting answers to all their doubts and not clear concepts. Even then, if students are still struggling with their confusions and doubts, they may drop in a message concerning to Manual Testing query or to our experts regarding Manual Testing interview questions for experienced professionals. Our trainers would be happy to assist and resolve all your Manual Testing-programming issues of the students. Join Manual Testing Training in Noida, Manual Testing Training in Delhi, Manual Testing Training in Gurgaon

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