Ethical hacking and ethical hacker are phrases used to explain hacking executed by a company or individual to assist identify potential threats on a PC or network. Ethical hacker efforts to bypass system security and look for weak points that can become the access point into te network by malicious hackers. This information obtained from the systematic ethical hacking is used by the organization to improve the system security, and to eliminate any potential attacks on the domain.
A hacker is a person who exploits the weakness and shortfalls in a computer system or network. This process can contain engaging in illegal activities like stealing private information, accessing and altering network configuration, sabotaging the user interface of the computer OS.
Ethical hacking is the process of intruding a network or a system to identify the threats or vulnerabilities present in them. This process enables us to fix the weaker areas of the systems or network in order to protect them from persons who try to attack them.
In the process of hacking, there are many types of hackers and ways of doing it. Below are some of them:
The steps performed by hackers to intrude systems or network are as follows:
Sniffing is a procedure used by hackers to monitor and capture all the network packets with the help of sniffing tools. For example, this process is similar to tapping a phone call and listening to the ongoing conversation.
There are many sniffing tools available, all have their own features of gathering information and analyzing traffic. Some of the commonly used tools are listed below:
Spoofing is the process of making communication by hiding the identity and acting as a trusted source. It is used to gain access to the target system and used to spread malware through harmful attachments or infected links. Spoofing can be done in many ways like:
Phishing involves a process of contacting the target user by email, phone or text message and gathering sensitive information like credit card details, passwords, etc.
“DDoS” or “Distributed Denial of Service” is explained as a malicious attempt to interrupt regular traffic of a targeted server or network by profusing the target with a flood of internet traffic
DDos attacks are mainly of three types, they are:
Malicious crypto mining or Cryptojacking is a type of online threat which uses the machine resources to mine forms of digital money known as cryptocurrency. This process can be carried out on a mobile device or on a computer.
A firewall is a network security system that allows or blocks network traffic as per predetermined security rules. These are placed on the boundary of trusted and untrusted networks.
Hashing is used to validate the integrity of the content, while encryption ensures data confidentiality and security. Encryption is a two-way function that includes encryption and decryption, while hashing is a one-way function that changes a plain text to a unique digest that is irreversible.
Virus: It is a type of malware that spreads by embedding a copy of itself and becomes a part of other programs. Viruses spread from one computer to other while sharing the software or document they are attached using a network, file sharing, disk, or infected email attachments.
Worm: These are similar to viruses and cause the same type of damage. They replicate functional copy of themselves and do not require a host program or human help to propagate. Advanced worms leverage encryption, ransomware, and wipers to harm their targets.
Keystroke logging is also known as keylogging or keyboard capturing. It is a type of surveillance software that records every keystroke made on the keyboard. Every action made on the keyboard is monitored, and data is retrieved by operating through the logging program.
A Trojan is a type of malware that is often developed by hackers or attackers to gain access to target systems. Users are manipulated by some attractive social media ads and then directed towards malicious sites into loading and performing Trojans on their systems.
ARP poisoning is a type of network attack that can be resolved through these techniques:
Using Packet filtering: Packet filters can filter out & block packets with clashing source address data.
Keeping away from trust relationship: Organizations ought to develop a protocol that depends on trust relationship as little as they can.
Utilize ARP spoofing software: Some programs assess and certify information before it is transmitted and blocks any information that is spoofed.
Footprinting is nothing but accumulating and revealing as much as data about the target network before gaining access into any network.
Open Source Footprinting: It will search for the contact data of administrators that will be utilized for guessing password in Social Engineering
Network Enumeration: The hacker attempts to distinguish the domain names and the network blocks of the target network
Scanning: After the network is known, the second step is to spy the active IP addresses on the network. For distinguishing active IP addresses (ICMP) Internet Control Message Protocol is a functioning IP addresses
Stack Fingerprinting: the final stage of foot printing step can be performed, once the hosts and port have been mapped by examining the network, this is called Stack fingerprinting.
Cowpattyis implemented on an offline dictionary attack against WPA/WPA2 networks utilizing PSK-based verification (e.g. WPA-Personal). Cowpatty can execute an enhanced attack if a recomputed PMK document is accessible for the SSID that is being assessed.
Network Enumeration is the revelation of hosts/gadgets on a network, they tend to utilize obvious disclosure protocols, for example, ICMP and SNMP to gather data, they may likewise check different ports on remote hosts for looking for surely known services trying to further recognize the function of a remote host.
Burp Suite is an integrated platform used for attacking net applications. It contains all the tools a hacker would need for attacking any application. a number of these functionalities are
Passive reconnaissance is nothing but to gain info regarding targeted computers and networks while not actively participating with the systems. In active reconnaissance, in distinction, the attacker engages with the target system, usually conducting a port scan to find any open ports.
All networks across devices are assigned a number which is unique, which is termed as MAC or Machine Access Control address. This address may be a personal mail box on the net. The network router identifies it. the amount may be modified anytime.All devices get their distinctive information processing address so they can be located easily on a given laptop and network. Whoever is aware of your distinctive information processing address will contact you through it.
SSL is identity verification, not hard encryption. it’s designed to be able to prove that the person you’re engaging on the other side is who they say they are. SSL and TLS are each used by almost everyone online, however because of this it is a huge target and is mainly attacked through its implementation (The Heartbleed bug for example) and its far-famed methodology.
Keylogger Trojan is malicious software that can monitor your keystroke, logging them to a file and sending them off to remote attackers. When the desired behaviour is observed, it will record the keystroke and captures your login username and password.
To synchronize clocks of networked computers, NTP (Network Time Protocol) is used. For its primary means of communication UDP port 123 is used. Over the public internet NTP can maintain time to within 10 milliseconds
MIB ( Management Information Base ) is a virtual database. It contains all the formal description about the network objects that can be managed using SNMP. The MIB database is hierarchical and in MIB each managed objects is addressed through object identifiers (OID).
CSRF or Cross site request forgery is an attack from a malicious website that will send a request to a web application that a user is already authenticated against from a different website. To prevent CSRF you can append unpredictable challenge token to each request and associate them with user’s session. It will ensure the developer that the request received is from a valid source.
Internet, Smartphones, social networking sites, and various online data sharing platforms have made our lives easy and quick. However, it has caused serious threat to individual and company’s personal reputation and data. Therefore, companies are looking for professionals who can keep searching for the loopholes in data security and integrity. There are numerous jobs available in this sector. Organizations are looking for Ethical hacking candidates having in-depth knowledge and skill to stop the malicious access into their domain via online sources.
An Ethical hacking professional is expected a minimum salary of 22, 000 dollars per annum. However, the salary of an experienced Ethical hacking may get double with experience and exposure that he or she may receive during the tenure. However, salaries are very dependent upon the location, business, and the company’s requirements.
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